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Table 2 Outcome measures

From: The effectiveness of an aged care specific leadership and management program on workforce, work environment, and care quality outcomes: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

Instrument Description of the instrument & domains Hypotheses & measures
Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ) [29] 19 items that measure staff attitudes toward dementia care that reflects their understanding of the need to provide person-centred care for people with dementia. Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5 (strongly agree/disagree). Higher scores indicate a greater understanding of the need to provide person-centred care for people with dementia. H2 – Care quality
Person-centred Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT) [30] 13 items that measure the extent to which staff rate their residential aged-care setting to be person-centred and providing best quality care for people with dementia. Responses are on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5 (‘disagree completely’ to ‘agree completely’). Higher scores indicate higher person-centred and quality care. H2 – Care quality
Workforce Dynamics Questionnaire (WDQ) [31] 58 items across 11 domains that measure staff satisfaction, staff perceptions of care quality, access to technology and equipment and training and career progression opportunities. Responses are on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 10 (‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’). Higher scores indicate greater overall job satisfaction and greater perceptions of the quality of care provided, access to technology and equipment, training and greater perceived career progression opportunities. H5 Intention to stay and to leave
H7 – Job satisfaction
Work Environment Scale-R (WES-R) [26] 90 items that measure the perception of the respondents workplace environment including: (a) relationships (involvement, co-worker cohesions, supervisor support); (b) goal orientation (autonomy, task orientation, work pressure); and (c) system maintenance and change dimensions (clarity, managerial control, innovation and physical comfort). True or False response (1 = positive, 0 = negative, total ranging 0 to 90). Higher scores indicate a more positive perception of the workplace environment. H1 – Work environment
H6 – Stress levels
H7 – Job satisfaction
Multi-factor Leadership questionnaire (MLQ)- Manager and Staff version [32] 46 items across 10 subscales that measure different types of leaders and differentiates between effective and non-effective leaders on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from (0 = not at all, 1 = once in a while, 2 = sometimes, 3 = fairly often, 4 = frequently, if not always). Individual aggregate scores for each of the leadership styles are calculated and higher scores indicate a greater tendency towards the particular style. An aggregate score for outcomes of leadership is also calculated, whereby higher scores indicate better perceived leadership including greater effectiveness and satisfaction. H1 – Work environment
H9 – Managers’ knowledge and skills in leadership and management