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Table 5 Effectiveness of controlled studies related to determinants of behaviour change

From: A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

Determinants of behaviour change [studies] Effect size
All studies (n = 13) R = relative difference between intervention and control$
  M = median [range]
  25.7 [-8.8 to 429]
Studies addressing one determinant n = 3
M: 17.6 [-8.8 to 61]
Action control[38] n = 1
R: -8.8
Awareness[40] n = 1
R: 17.6
Facilities[45] n = 1
R: 61.0
Studies addressing two determinants n = 1
M: 25.7 [25.7*]
Awareness, Social influence[37] n = 1
R: 25.7
Studies addressing three determinants n = 3
M: 42.3 [19.5 to 82.7]
Knowledge, Awareness, Facilities[53] n = 1
R: 19.5
Knowledge, Awareness, Self-efficacy[55] n = 1
R : 42.3
Knowledge, Action control, Facilities[56] n = 1
R: 82.7
Studies addressing four determinants n = 2
M: 43.9 [14.8 to 73*]
Knowledge, Awareness, Facilities, Social influence[35] n = 1
R: 73
Self-efficacy, Intention, Awareness, Social influence[63] n = 1
R: 14.8
Studies addressing five determinants n = 3
M: 49.5 [-8.6 to 429]
Knowledge, Awareness, Action control, Facilities, Attitude[67] n = 1
R: 49.5
Knowledge, Awareness, Facilities, Attitude, Self-efficacy[69] n = 1
R: -8.6
Knowledge, Awareness, Facilities, Self-efficacy, Action control[32] n = 1
R: 429
Studies addressing seven determinants n = 1
M: 9.7 [9.7 *]
Knowledge, Awareness, Social influence, Self-efficacy, Intention, Action control, Attitude[70] n = 1
  R: 9.7
  1. *Median and range calculated over fewer than three studies.
  2. $Relative difference calculated as (the results from the intervention group after the intervention minus the results from the control group after the intervention) divided by the results from the control group after the intervention.