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Table 2 Facilitation activities performed by appointed facilitators

From: Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation

Planning for change
Increasing awareness Developing a plan
1) Highlighting a need for practice change
2) Selecting an area for change relevant to staff/recognized as a priority
3) Stimulating critical inquiry and assisting groups to develop/refine specific clinical practice questions
4) Assisting with/performing a formal/informal practice audit
*5) Interpreting baseline data and providing feedback/insight into
performance gaps
6) Emphasizing enhanced patient outcomes as opposed to poor practice as reason for change
7) Goal-setting and assisting with development of an action plan
8) Helping identify and determine solutions to address potential barriers to EBP
9) Displaying and generating enthusiasm at the start of the project
10) Thinking ahead in the process
Leading and managing change
Knowledge and data management Project management
11) Knowledge translation/dissemination (assisting with conducting literature searches, obtaining articles, appraising and summarizing the evidence)
12) Helping to interpret the research and apply it in practice
13) Providing resources/tools for change
14) Identifying a leader
15) Establishing and allocating roles/delegating responsibilities
16) Advocating for resources and change
Recognizing the importance of context Fostering team-building/group dynamics
*17) Creating an open, supportive, and trusting environment conducive to change
18) Helping to build in the structures/processes to support staff and help them overcome obstacles
19) Creating local ownership of change
20) Assisting with adapting evidence to the local context
21) Boundary-spanning (addressing organizational systems/culture), managing the different requirements of each discipline/role
22) Tailoring/adapting facilitation services to the local setting
23) Relationship-building
24) Encouraging effective teamwork
25) Enabling individual and group development
26) Encouraging/ensuring adequate participation
27) Increasing awareness of and helping overcome resistance to change
28) Consensus-building (shared decision-making)
Administrative and project-specific support
29) Organizing/scheduling meetings
30) Leading/participating in meetings
31) Gathering information and assembling/distributing reports and materials
32) General planning
33) Providing skills training
34) Taking on specific tasks
Monitoring progress and ongoing implementation
Problem-solving Providing support
35) Problem-solving and addressing specific issues
36) Making changes to the developed plan as necessary
37) Networking
Effective communication
46) Providing regular communication (emails, phone calls)
47) Keeping group members informed
48) Acting as a liaison
38) Mentoring and role-modelling EBP
39) Maintaining momentum and enthusiasm
40) Acknowledging ideas and efforts
41) Providing ongoing support/reassurance and constructive feedback
42) Empowering group members
43) Providing advice/guidance/assistance
44) Being available as needed
45) Ensuring group remains on task and things are not missed (process/methodology is followed)
Evaluating change
49) Performing/assisting with evaluation
*50) Linking evidence implementation to patient outcomes
*51) Acknowledging success, recognizing and celebrating achievements
  1. *Activities not noted to be performed by recognized facilitators in the case-series data.