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Table 4 Hierarchical linear model analysis of total EBPAS total score

From: The organizational social context of mental health services and clinician attitudes toward evidence-based practice: a United States national study

Predictor  χ  2 ( df )a b  SE  95% CI  T   df   p 
Intercept   36.45 *** 6.19 [48.75, 24.15] 5.89 88 0.000
Organizational Level
 Rigid Culture   0.01 0.11 [0.23, -0.21] 0.09 88 0.933
 Proficient Culture   0.23 * 0.11 [0.45, 0.01] 2.09 88 0.039
 Resistant Culture   0.12 0.12 [0.36, -0.12] 1.00 88 0.320
 Stressful Climate   −0.03 0.04 [0.05, -0.11] −0.77 88 0.442
 Engaged Climate   0.21 0.14 [0.49, -0.07] 1.49 88 0.140
 Functional Climate   −0.14 0.09 [0.04, -0.32] −1.47 88 0.146
Type of agency (reference group = public) 13.62** (2)       
 For Profit   −4.79 2.49 [0.16, -9.74] −1.93 88 0.057
 Non Profit   1.04 0.78 [2.59, -0.51] 1.32 88 0.190
Service Structure (reference group = separate child division) 1.78 (2)       
 Child and Adult   0.19 0.82 [1.82, -1.44] 0.23 88 0.822
 Child Only   −0.23 0.35 [0.47, -0.93] −0.67 88 0.506
Individual Level
 Female   0.81 0.58 [1.95, -0.33] 1.39 923 0.162
 Education Level   0.10 0.31 [0.71, -0.51] 0.33 923 0.739
 Years Experience   −0.18 *** 0.03 [−0.12, -0.24] −7.39 923 0.000
Rigid Culture 0.02 0.04 [0.10, -0.06] 0.38 923 0.701  
Proficient Culture 0.13 *** 0.04 [0.21, 0.05] 3.85 923 0.000  
Resistant Culture 0.05 0.04 [0.13, -0.03] 1.41 923 0.158  
Stressful Climate 0.05 * 0.02 [0.09, 0.01] 2.30 923 0.022  
Engaged Climate 0.19 *** 0.05 [0.29, 0.09] 3.81 923 0.000  
Functional Climate 0.10 *** 0.03 [0.16, 0.04] 3.31 923 0.001  
Race/Ethnicity (reference group = Caucasian) 177.94*** (5)       
 African American   −2.94 *** 0.78 [−1.41, -4.47] −3.78 923 0.000
 Asian   1.68 1.83 [5.27, -1.91] 0.91 923 0.361
 Hispanic   −0.97 0.98 [0.95, -2.89] −0.98 923 0.326
 Native American   4.22 6.56 [17.09, -8.65] 0.64 923 0.520
 Other Race   −2.72 ** 1.03 [−0.70, -4.74] −2.63 923 0.009
Major (reference group = psychology) 40.63*** (5)       
 Education   −0.01 0.92 [1.80, -1.82] −0.01 923 0.990
 Medical   −0.41 1.64 [2.81, -3.63] −0.25 923 0.804
 Nursing   −0.89 2.55 [4.11, -5.89] −0.35 923 0.726
 Social Work   1.77 ** 0.58 [2.91, 0.63] 3.08 923 0.003
 Other   −0.59 0.60 [0.59, -1.77] −0.98 923 0.329
ICC (unconditional) = 0.06
Eta squared = 0.15***
Organizational Variance Explained by Climate and Culture = 8.2%
Organizational Variance Explained by Full Model = 28.4%
  1. Note: N = 1154; EBPAS = Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale; b = regression coefficient; SE = standard error; df = degrees of freedom; p = two-tailed significance level; OSC = Organizational Social Context; ICC = Intraclass correlation; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.
  2. Note: a Chi Square for each categorical variable calculated as difference in deviance statistics between models with and without parameters representing contrasts between categories that define the variable.