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Table 1 Steps for developing a theory-informed implementation intervention

From: Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework



STEP 1: Who needs to do what, differently?

· Identify the evidence-practice gap

· Specify the behaviour change needed to reduce the evidence-practice gap

· Specify the health professional group whose behaviour needs changing

STEP 2: Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed?

· From the literature, and experience of the development team, select which theory(ies), or theoretical framework(s), are likely to inform the pathways of change

· Use the chosen theory(ies), or framework, to identify the pathway(s) of change and the possible barriers and enablers to that pathway

· Use qualitative and/or quantitative methods to identify barriers and enablers to behaviour change

STEP 3: Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers?

· Use the chosen theory, or framework, to identify potential behaviour change techniques to overcome the barriers and enhance the enablers

· Identify evidence to inform the selection of potential behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery

· Identify what is likely to be feasible, locally relevant, and acceptable and combine identified components into an acceptable intervention that can be delivered

STEP 4: How can behaviour change be measured and understood?

· Identify mediators of change to investigate the proposed pathways of change

· Select appropriate outcome measures

· Determine feasibility of outcomes to be measured