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Table 1 Steps for developing a theory-informed implementation intervention

From: Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

Step Tasks
STEP 1: Who needs to do what, differently? · Identify the evidence-practice gap
· Specify the behaviour change needed to reduce the evidence-practice gap
· Specify the health professional group whose behaviour needs changing
STEP 2: Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? · From the literature, and experience of the development team, select which theory(ies), or theoretical framework(s), are likely to inform the pathways of change
· Use the chosen theory(ies), or framework, to identify the pathway(s) of change and the possible barriers and enablers to that pathway
· Use qualitative and/or quantitative methods to identify barriers and enablers to behaviour change
STEP 3: Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? · Use the chosen theory, or framework, to identify potential behaviour change techniques to overcome the barriers and enhance the enablers
· Identify evidence to inform the selection of potential behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery
· Identify what is likely to be feasible, locally relevant, and acceptable and combine identified components into an acceptable intervention that can be delivered
STEP 4: How can behaviour change be measured and understood? · Identify mediators of change to investigate the proposed pathways of change
· Select appropriate outcome measures
· Determine feasibility of outcomes to be measured