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Table 1 Summary characteristics of studies citing the original Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) paper that used the framework in an empirical study

From: Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework

Lead author, source, date

Paper title

Study design of TDF-based component


Behaviour; setting

Jacobs N. Patient Education & Counseling 2011:85(1);122

Effect of a cardiovascular prevention program on health behaviour and BMI in highly educated adults: A randomized controlled trial

Randomised controlled trial

Highly educated adults (n = 314)

Fat intake, physical activity, smoking; Belgium

Amemori M. Implementation Science 2011:6(1); 50

Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers

Questionnaire study

Dental healthcare providers (n = 73)

Providing tobacco use prevention techniques and cessation counselling; Finland

Zhu D. Obesity Reviews 2011:12(501);e324

The relationship between health professionals’ weight status and attitudes towards weight management: A systematic review

Systematic review

Health professionals from 14 independent samples (n = 10,043)

Providing weight management advice

Helms C. Vaccine 2011:29(16);2895

Implementation of mandatory immunisation of healthcare workers: Observations from New South Wales, Australia

Interview study

Stakeholders from health department, hospitals, health professional associations, universities (n = 58)

Immunisation of healthcare workers; Australia

Dyson J. Journal of Infection Prevention 2011:12(1);17

Does the use of a theoretical approach tell us more about hand hygiene behaviour? The barriers and levers to hand hygiene

Interviews, focus groups, and questionnaire study

Healthcare practitioners (n = 25, 21, 24 for interviews, focus groups, and questionnaire, respectively)

Hand hygiene behaviours; UK

Ivers NM. Implementation Science 2010:5(1); 98

Feedback GAP: Study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care

Protocol for process evaluation, involving interviews, to investigate barriers to change in trial context

Primary care practitioners (target n = 12)

Primary care; Canada

Cuthbertson B. Trials 2010:11; 117

A study of the perceived risks, benefits and barriers to the use of SDD in adult critical care units (the SuDDICU study)

Protocol for multistage feasibility study involving interviews for a Delphi study

Four stakeholder groups involved in intensive care (critical care, infectious diseases, pharmacy, nursing) (target n = 120)

Provision of Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract (SDD) in Critical Care; UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand

McKenzie JE. Implementation Science 2010:5(1); 86

Improving the care for people with acute low-back pain by allied health professionals (the ALIGN trial): A cluster randomised trial protocol

Protocol includes interviews; findings used to design intervention

Physiotherapists and chiropractors in Australia (210 practices)

Behaviours from a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain; Australia

Hetrick S. Australasian Psychiatry 2010:18(5);451

Promoting physical health in youth mental health services: Ensuring routine monitoring of weight and metabolic indices in a first episode psychosis clinic

Interview study

Psychiatrists (n not reported)

Monitoring of weight gain and metabolic indices in people with first episode psychosis; Australia

Brotherton JML. Sexual Health 2010:7(3):291

National survey of general practitioners’ experience of delivering the national human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV) program

Questionnaire study

General practitioners (n = 298)

Delivery of HPV vaccine, general practice; Australia

Clarkson JE. Implementation Science 2010:5(1);57

The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS) programme protocol

Questionnaires and interviews used to develop interventions

Range of samples, dentistry staff

Range of dental care behaviours; UK

Edwards P. BMC Public Health 2010:10;200

Assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: Protocol for a systematic review

Systematic review

Participants aged 13 years or over

Dietary behaviour

Guillaimie L. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity 2010:7;12.

Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in adult population: A systematic review

Systematic review

General population (n = 34,577)

Fruit and vegetable intake

McCluskey A. BMC Health Services Research 2010:10;18

Delivering an evidence-based outdoor journey intervention to people with stroke: Barriers and enablers experienced by community rehabilitation teams

Before-after interview study

Allied health professionals from two rehabilitation teams

(n = 13)

Delivery of evidence-based outdoor journey intervention for people with stroke; Australia

Nzinga J. Implementation Science 2010:4(1); 44

Documenting the experiences of health workers expected to implement guidelines during an intervention study in Kenyan hospitals

Interview study

Health workers (n = 29)

Paediatric and newborn care in hospitals; Kenya

Godin G. Implementation Science 2010:3(1); 36

Healthcare professionals’ intentions and behaviours: A systematic review of studies based on social cognitive theories

Systematic review

Studies of health professionals’ behaviour (n = 78)

Studies based on social cognitive theories

Francis JJ. British Journal of Health Psychology 2009:14(4);625

Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: Using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians’ blood transfusion behaviour

Interview study

Intensive care consultants and neonatologists (n = 18)

Intensive care and paediatric intensive care; UK

Judah G. American Journal of Public Health 2009:99(Suppl.2)

Experimental pretesting of hand-washing interventions in a natural setting

Naturalistic randomised study; hour of the day as unit of randomisation

General population (n = nearly 200,000 restroom uses)

Hand washing in public restrooms; UK

Pitt VJ. Disability & Rehabilitation 2008:30(25);1938

Referral of people with osteoarthritis to self-management programmes: Barriers and enablers identified by general practitioners

Interview study

General practitioners (n = 13)

Referral of people with osteoarthritis to self-management programmes; Australia

McKenzie JE. Implementation Science 2008:3(1); 11

IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

Protocol includes focus group interviews; findings used to design intervention

General practitioners (target sample size = 92 general practices)

Behaviours from a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain; Australia

Michie S. Implementation Science 2007:2(1); 8

Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: An exploratory investigation using psychological theory

Interview study

Professionals in community mental health teams (n = 20)

Offering a family intervention to families of people with schizophrenia; UK

  1. BMI body mass index; GAP goal setting and action plans; SuDDICU selective decontamination of the digestive tract in intensive care units; ALIGN acute low-back pain: implementing guidelines iNto practice.