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Table 2 KTE activities that researchers frequently or always undertook in their research domains

From: Use of health systems and policy research evidence in the health policymaking in eastern Mediterranean countries: views and practices of researchers

  Total
N (%)
95% Confidence Interval
Transferring research frequently or always to the following categories of potential users   
Other researchers or academic institutions (e.g., conferences, forums). 88 (67%) 57.77% to 73.76%
Policy makers in the government (e.g., Ministry of Health, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Education,...). 53 (41%) 31.93% to 48.34%
Service providers (e.g., clinicians, nurses, pharmacists,...). 44 (34%) 25.66% to 41.46%
Directors in healthcare institutions (e.g., hospitals, Primary Healthcare Centers). 36 (28%) 20.24% to 35.18%
Directors in donor agencies (e.g., United States Agency for International Development (USAID), United Nations, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO),...). 35 (27%) 19.57% to 34.39%
General public or service recipients (e.g., citizens, patients, clients). 27 (21%) 14.34% to 27.93%
Directors of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). 25 (19%) 13.07% to 26.28%
Directors in a health professional association or group (e.g., Syndicate of Hospitals, Order of Physicians, Order of Nurses). 22 (17%) 11.18% to 23.78%
Knowledge transfer and exchange activities conducted frequently or always in relation to the production and dissemination of evidence   
Produce articles and reports of high priority to health policy and systems. 54 (41%) 32.63% to 49.10%
Translate high priority policy concerns into priority research themes and/or questions. 48 (37%) 28.42% to 44.54%
Disseminate articles and reports to health policy makers and stakeholders. 35 (27%) 19.57% to 34.39%
Disseminate messages that specified possible actions to health policy makers and stakeholders. 32 (24%) 17.59% to 31.99%
Provide health policy makers and stakeholders with research results through the web (emails, newsletters, listserves) 26 (20%) 13.70% to 27.10%
Produce policy briefs to inform discussions of high priority policy issues 19 (15%) 9.34% to 21.24%
Contacting and exchanging research frequently or always with health policy makers and stakeholders   
Involved policy makers and stakeholders but had difficulty contacting them. 38 (29%) 21.58% to 36.77%
Provided technical assistance to policy makers and stakeholders through short-term work through expert advisory committees, conferences, or forums. 38 (29%) 21.58% to 36.77%
Interacted with health policy makers and stakeholders through informal conversations with personal contacts. 36 (28%) 20.24% to 35.18%
Participated in meetings for presentation of results from HPSR and/or your own research to health policy makers and stakeholders. 35 (27%) 19.57% to 34.39%
Actively participated in health policy development committees or technical committees that help in decision making. 34 (26%) 18.91% to 33.59%
Provided technical assistance through long-term formal collaborations between your institution and policy makers and stakeholders for sustained technical capacity development. 30 (23%) 16.28% to 30.37%
Involved policy makers and stakeholders in your research (in the development of joint proposals/research methodology and tools/analysis & write-up/publications). 26 (20%) 13.70% to 27.10%
Interacted with health policy makers and stakeholders as part of a priority-setting process to identify high-priority health policy issues and research themes. 21 (16%) 10.57% to 22.93%
Trained health policy makers and stakeholders to acquire, assess, interpret, and apply health research findings. 21 (16%) 10.57% to 22.93%
Interacted with credible messengers/sources (i.e., people who are not researchers but are seen by policy makers and stakeholders as credible sources of research) to promote use of evidence from HPSR and/or your own research 20 (15%) 9.95% to 22.09%
Developed relationships with print, radio and/or television journalists to promote use of evidence from HPSR and/or your own research. 17 (13%) 8.14% to 19.52%
  1. HPSR: health policy and systems research