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Table 1 Description of the underlying PARIHS framework [25]

From: A Guide for applying a revised version of the PARIHS framework for implementation

Purpose " provide a map to enable others to make sense of [the] complexity [of implementation], and the elements that require attention if implementation is more likely to be successful" [5]
Proposition Successful Implementation (SI) is a (f)unction of Evidence (E), Context (C), and Facilitation (F). The actual complexity of this formula is represented in the framework through the following:
  • Its numerous, potentially applicable sub-elements within its three overarching elements
  • Its recognition of the nature of complex and dynamic inter-relationships among E, C, and F
Core elements Evidence (E) = "codified and non-codified sources of knowledge," as perceived by multiple stakeholders
 Context (C) = quality of the environment or setting in which the research is implemented
 Facilitation (F) = a "technique by which one person makes things easier for others," achieved through "support to help people change their attitudes, habits, skills, ways of thinking, and working"
  Each element can be assessed for whether its status is weak ("low" rating) or strong ("high" rating) and thus can have a negative or positive influence on implementation. For Facilitation, the focus is on rating "appropriateness."
  1. PARIHS = Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services.