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Table 2 Evidence of effectiveness for interventions to promote behavioural change among health professionals [7]

From: The NIHR collaboration for leadership in applied health research and care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester: combining empirical, theoretical and experiential evidence to design and evaluate a large-scale implementation strategy

Consistently effective Variable effectiveness Little or no effect
• Educational outreach visits (for prescribing in North America)
• Reminders (manual or computerised)
• Multifaceted interventions (a combination that includes two or more of the following: audit and feedback, reminders, local consensus processes, or marketing)
• Interactive educational meetings (participation of healthcare providers in workshops that include discussion of practice)
• Audit and feedback (or any summary of clinical performance)
• The use of local opinion leaders (practitioners identified by their colleagues as influential)
• Local consensus processes (inclusion of participating practitioners in discussions to ensure that they agree that the chosen clinical problem is important and the approach to managing the problem is appropriate)
• Patient-mediated interventions (any intervention aimed at changing the performance of healthcare providers for which specific information was sought from or given to patients)
• Educational materials (distribution of recommendations for clinical care, including clinical practice guidelines, audiovisual materials, and electronic publications)
• Didactic educational meetings (such as lectures)