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Table 1 Description of research utilization measure classes

From: A systematic review of the psychometric properties of self-report research utilization measures used in healthcare

Class Description No of Articles [Citations]
Nurses Practice Questionnaire (NPQ) Developed for nurses. The NPQ consists of brief descriptions of 14 specific practice innovations. Seven questions measuring an individual's stage of innovation adoption are posed for each innovation. The first six questions measure adoption of the practice according to Roger's [91] Innovation-Decision Process Theory while the seventh question measures perception of policy existence with respect to the innovation. All items are scored dichotomously (yes/no) except for one item (on 'use'), which is scored as never, sometimes, or always. 11 articles [3035, 5963]
Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ) Developed for nurses. The RUQ consists of 42 self-descriptive statements comprising four subscales of which research use is one. The research use subscale contains 10 items, which measure the degree to which an individual feels they incorporate research findings into their daily practice. Items are scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. 16 articles [55, 71, 72, 75, 79, 81, 82, 85, 89, 118124]
Edmonton Research Orientation Survey (EROS) Developed in the context of rehabilitation specialties (e.g., physiotherapy,). The EROS has four subscales of which the 'Using Research/Evidence-Based Practice' is one subscale. This subscale is composed of 10 items. Items are scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. 8 articles [37, 7678, 125128]
Knott and Wildavsky Standards Developed for leaders based on Knott and Wildavsky's [93]Standards of Research Use. Consists of seven items to measure each of the seven standards of research use: reception, cognition, reference, effort, adoption, implementation, and impact. Items scored on a 5-point frequency scale from never to very often. 1 article [20]
Other Specific Practices Indices Asks respondents to report on their use of a range of specific research-based practices. The number and kind of practices vary by the study. The scales used to measure use of the practices vary by study with some studies measuring use on frequency scales and others dichotomously as use or nonuse. (See Additional File 4) 5 articles [17, 18, 21, 50, 129]
Other General Research Use Indices Each of these indices combines several items on respondents' general use of research (i.e., not use of specific practices) to derive an index (or overall score) representing their use of research. (See Additional File 4) 10 articles [24, 36, 50, 73, 84, 101105]
Past/Present/Future Use Developed for nurses. Asks respondents to indicate their participation in one or more research activities in the past (> 6 months ago), present (most recent six months), and intention to use research in the future (within the next year). Responses are scored in a dichotomous yes/no format. Each item is considered individually, that is, items are not combined to form an index score. 3 articles [65, 90, 130]
Parahoo Measure Developed for nurses. Measures research use with three single items. The three items are: frequency of use of research in clinical practice (scored on a 5-point frequency scale from never to all the time), implementation of new research findings in one's own practice in the last two years (scored dichotomously as yes/no), and to list up to three research findings that they have implemented in the last two years (open ended). Each item is considered individually, that is, items are not combined to form an index score. 7 articles [53, 131136]
Estabrooks' Kinds of Research Use Developed for nurses. Measures research use with single items that tap four kinds of research use: instrumental (or direct), conceptual (or indirect), persuasive, and overall. Each item is preceded by a definition of the kind of research use and examples of that kind of research use. For each kind of research use, respondents are asked to indicate, over the past year, how often they have used research in this way. The items are treated individually (i.e., they are not combined to form an index). Items are scored on a 7-point (from never to nearly every shift) or 4-point (from never to nearly every work day) scale. 10 articles [3, 26, 6670, 74, 80, 86]
(8 studies)
Other Single Item Measures Developed for different types of healthcare professionals (depending on the target population of the study). Measures research use with a single-item developed for the study, and not used by others in subsequent studies. A variety of scoring methods are used depending on the study using different frequency scales, Likert agreement scales, dichotomous yes/no scales, and/or open-ended responses. 39 articles [22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 3749, 51, 52, 54, 57, 58, 83, 87, 88, 137149]
(39 studies)