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Table 2 Factors associated with dissemination of innovations and how these factors likely influence use of EBTsa

From: Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

Factor Likely Direction of Influenceb
Characteristics of the innovation. Innovation more likely to be adopted if it:  
• Is compatible with adopters' values, norms, needs. ↓↓↓
• Is simple to implement. ↓↓
• Can be adapted, refined, modified for adopters' needs. ↓↓↓
• Is accompanied by easily available or provided knowledge required for its use. ↓↓↓
Sources of communication and influence. Uptake of innovation influenced by:  
• Structure and quality of social and communication networks.
• Similarity of sources of information to targeted adopters; e.g., in terms of socioeconomic, educational, professional, and cultural backgrounds.
External influences. Uptake of innovation influenced by:  
• Policy mandates. ↑↓ (attitudes), ↑↑↑ (use)
Linkages among the components. Innovation more likely to be adopted if there are:  
• Formal linkages between developers and users early in development. ↓↓↓
• Effective relationships between any designated "change agents" and targeted adopters.
Characteristics of individual adopters  
• General and context-specific psychological traits. ↑↓
• Finding the intervention personally relevant. ↑↓
Structural and cultural characteristics of potential organizational adopters. Innovation more likely to be adopted if organization:  
• Has effective data systems. ↓↓
• Is "ready" for change because of ...available time and resources for change, and capacity to evaluate innovation's implementation. ↓↓↓
The uptake process. Innovation more likely to be adopted with:  
• Funding. ↓↓↓ (Tribal/IHS), ↑↑↑ (EBT-specific)
• Adaptation and reinvention. ↓↓↓
Programmatic Priorities. Innovation more likely to be adopted if it:c  
• Is consistent with the programmatic priorities of the adopter.c ↓↓
  1. Notes. alist adapted from that developed by Greenhalgh et al., 2004 [86].
  2. blikely direction of influence refers to our perceptions of how these particular factors are affecting the dissemination process in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities as follows: ↑↑↑ - strongly supportive of the dissemination process; ↑↓ - mixed/neutral; ↓ - somewhat negative; ↓↓ - negative; ↓↓↓ - strongly negative.
  3. can additional factor identified by our Advisory Board but not included in Greenhalgh et al.'s summary.