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Table 1 Selected examples of evidence-based treatments for substance use problems

From: Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

Evidence-based treatment Brief description and citation
Psychosocial Treatments - Behavioral
• Contingency management Provide positive reinforcement (i.e., rewards) for progress in treatment (most typically abstinence from substance use) [66].
Psychosocial Treatments - Cognitive Behavioral
• Motivational interviewing/ motivational enhancement therapy Focuses on facilitating behavioral change by helping individuals to explore and resolve ambivalence towards treatment and become committed to addressing their substance use problems [67].
• Behavioral couples therapy Focuses on building an abstinence-supporting relationship between the person who is abusing substances and his or her partner [68].
• Relapse prevention therapy Teaches individuals with substance addiction a number of specific skills to reduce the risk of relapse [69].
Pharmacologic Treatments
• Medication for relapse prevention The use of medications to help prevent relapse of substance use problems, such as naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine [71].