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Table 3 Predicting behaviour by psychological theory: negative binomial regression analyses

From: Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

Theory Predictive Constructs IRR Individual and p-value IRR model
Theory of Planned Intention 1.285 0.008 1.097  
Behaviour PBC direct 1.023 0.823 1.175  
  PBC power 1.427 < 0.001 1.444** R2 = 0.004
Social Cognitive Theory Risk perception 1.444 < 0.001 1.392**  
  Outcome expectancies 1.019 0.080 1.001  
  Self efficacy 1.363 0.019 1.110  
  Generalised self efficacy 0.855 0.564 0.823 R2 = 0.002
Implementation Intention   1. 111 0.138 1.111 R2 = 0.000
Operant Learning Theory Anticipated consequences 1.449 < 0.001 1.413**  
  Evidence of habitual behaviour 1.089 0.179 1.017 R2 = 0.004
Common Sense Identity of condition 0.864 0.278 0.867  
Self-regulation Timeline acute 1.08 0.957 1.026  
Model Timeline cyclical 1.187 0.196 1.273  
  Control - by treatment 1.105 0.970 1.170  
  Control - by patient 0.869 0.142 0.725*  
  Control - by doctor 0.936 0.524 1.064  
  Cause - stress 1.191 0.370 0.519  
  Cause - family problems 1.345 0.130 2.526  
  Cause - poor prior medical care 1.403 0.134 1.70*  
  Cause - patient's own behaviour 0.897 0.581 0.592*  
  Cause - ageing 1.609 0.028 1.671*  
  Cause - bad luck 0.712 0.080 0.759  
  Cause - overwork 0.878 0.502 0.969  
  Consequence 1.006 0.902 1.060  
  Emotional Response 0.962 0.699 1.005  
  Coherence 1.231 0.046 1.171 R2 = 0.000
Precaution Adoption Process   0.871 0.599 0.871 R2 = 0.000
Knowledge   0.859 0.104 0.859 R2 = 0.000
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.
  2. Alpha = Cronbach's; IRR Individual = incidence rate ratio from a regression model with the single construct independent variable IRR Model = incidence rate ratio from the theoretical model with all constructs included as independent variables. R2 is MacFadden's adjusted R2.