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Table 2 Descriptive statistics

From: Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

Theory Predictive Constructs N Alpha Mean (SD) Respondents agreeing with item (%)
Theory of Attitude direct 2 0.25 4.6 (1.2)  
Planned Attitude indirect 4 0.75 18.6 (6.9)  
Behaviour Subjective Norm 4 0.68 15.0 (4.8)  
  Intention 3 0.69 2.1 (1.0)  
  PBC direct 4 0.63 4.5 (1.1)  
  PBC power 14 0.91 3.1 (1.0)  
Social Cognitive Theory Risk perception 2 0.46 2.2 (1.0)  
  Outcome expectancies 6 0.76 13.9 (8.3)  
  Self efficacy 14 0.93 3.2 (0.8)  
  Generalised self efficacy 10 0.87 2.8 (0.4)  
Implementation Intention Action Planning - - 2.4 (1.6)  
Operant Learning Theory Anticipated consequences 2 0.46 2.2 (1.0)  
  Evidence of habitual behaviour 2 0.60 3.3 (1.7)  
Common Sense Identity of condition 3 0.49 4.2 (0.8)  
Self-regulation Timeline acute 2 0.19 3.4 (0.8)  
Model Timeline cyclical 3 0.54 4.4 (0.9)  
  Control - by treatment 3 0.66 5.6 (0.8)  
  Control - by patient 2 0.85 5.7 (1.0)  
  Control - by doctor 2 0.36 5.3 (0.9)  
  Cause - stress 1     126 (42)
  Cause - family problems 1     117 (39)
  Cause - poor prior medical care 1     66 (22)
  Cause - patient's own behaviour 1     225 (85)
  Cause - ageing 1     217 (73)
  Cause - bad luck 1     140 (47)
  Cause - overwork 1     148 (49)
  Consequence 2 0.21 4.8 (0.8)  
  Emotional Response 4 0.69 5.1 (1.0)  
  Coherence 2 0.74 2.7 (1.0)  
Precaution Adoption Process       157 (53)†
Other Knowledge 5 0.21 3.1 (1.0)  
  1. *p≤0.05; ** p≤0.01; ***p≤0.001.
  2. Alpha = Cronbach's
  3. Number of respondents who replied 'I have decided that I will request less lumbar X-rays' or 'I have already done something about decreasing the number of lumbar X-rays I request.'