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Table 1 Definitions of interventions and policies

From: The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

Interventions Definition Examples
Education Increasing knowledge or understanding Providing information to promote healthy eating
Persuasion Using communication to induce positive or negative feelings or stimulate action Using imagery to motivate increases in physical activity
Incentivisation Creating expectation of reward Using prize draws to induce attempts to stop smoking
Coercion Creating expectation of punishment or cost Raising the financial cost to reduce excessive alcohol consumption
Training Imparting skills Advanced driver training to increase safe driving
Restriction Using rules to reduce the opportunity to engage in the target behaviour (or to increase the target behaviour by reducing the opportunity to engage in competing behaviours) Prohibiting sales of solvents to people under 18 to reduce use for intoxication
Environmental restructuring Changing the physical or social context Providing on-screen prompts for GPs to ask about smoking behaviour
Modelling Providing an example for people to aspire to or imitate Using TV drama scenes involving safe-sex practices to increase condom use
Enablement Increasing means/reducing barriers to increase capability or opportunity1 Behavioural support for smoking cessation, medication for cognitive deficits, surgery to reduce obesity, prostheses to promote physical activity
Communication/marketing Using print, electronic, telephonic or broadcast media Conducting mass media campaigns
Guidelines Creating documents that recommend or mandate practice. This includes all changes to service provision Producing and disseminating treatment protocols
Fiscal Using the tax system to reduce or increase the financial cost Increasing duty or increasing anti-smuggling activities
Regulation Establishing rules or principles of behaviour or practice Establishing voluntary agreements on advertising
Legislation Making or changing laws Prohibiting sale or use
Environmental/social planning Designing and/or controlling the physical or social environment Using town planning
Service provision Delivering a service Establishing support services in workplaces, communities etc.
  1. 1 Capability beyond education and training; opportunity beyond environmental restructuring