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Table 2 Data triangulation based on Pettigrew's framework

From: Understanding the context of balanced scorecard implementation: a hospital-based case study in Pakistan

PGF Dimension a Research Question Corresponding metrics b Selected Quotes
(Key Informants) c
(Meetings) d
Culture type
(Survey) e
Context Why do these units wish/not wish to implement BSC? Non-financial incentives *Driving force should be there in the form of promotions, co-authorship etc (Units I, II) *Units I and II were looking forward to non financial incentives to implement BSC Unit I = Group and Rational
   Human resources * We don't have anyone in the unit to be able to work on this (Unit IV) *Unit III and IV more inclined towards financial incentives and attending to clinics Unit II = Group and Development
   Clinical workload * A hindering force in our unit is that people are overworked (Units II, IV) *Lack of designated human resources, access to required information and time constraints were major barriers in Units III, IV Unit III = Hierarchical and Rational
   Data quality and access *We do not have ready access to all data (Units III, IV)   Unit IV = Rational and Hierarchical
   Benefits of BSC * BSC reduces ad hoc reporting and improves outcomes (Unit II). *Sensitization to BSC benefits facilitated implementation in Unit II  
Process How do these units implement BSC? Leadership, designated human resources, role awareness and ownership, regular meetings *Our head has told us that BSC will give us the right opportunity (Unit II) *Facilitatory factors were; role alignment and leadership communicating clear agenda for BSC (Units I and II) Same as above
   BSC as part of ongoing information systems * We are already using BSC but we don't call it so (Unit I) * Introducing BSC as on ongoing information system activity/small scale (Units I and III)  
   Start small    
Content What changes in key contextual elements occurred during implementation BSC and culture *What is required is a more participatory culture (Unit I). Units I and II team-oriented Units III and IV; derogatory style of leadership Same as above
  1. aThe key dimensions of Pettigrew's framework.
  2. bMetrics are categories which accumulate similar data.
  3. cSelected quotes from key informant interviews reflect the type of information contained in particular metrics.
  4. dParticipant observation from meetings correspond to metrics.
  5. eCulture type of each unit was obtained through quantitative survey and highlights the background against which BSC implementation took place.