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Table 1 Definitions of interventions.

From: What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

Intervention Systematic review intervention definition
Client Reminders Printed letter or postcard or telephone communications that were client-tailored or untailored interventions and reminder or recall notifications.
Could include one or more of follow-up printed or telephone reminder; additional text or discussion with information about barriers to screening; or appointment scheduling assistance.
Client Incentives Small, non-coercive rewards (cash or coupons) motivating people to obtain screening for selves or others.
Mass Media Community or larger-scale intervention campaigns, including television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and billboards.
Interventions usually linked to other ongoing interventions.
Small Media Included videos or tailored or untailored printed materials, such as letters, brochures, pamphlets, flyers, or newsletters distributed by healthcare systems or community groups.
Group Education Conducted by a variety of healthcare educators through a variety of formats, for a variety of groups, and in a variety of settings.
One-on-One Education In-person or telephone, tailored or untailored communication delivered by healthcare professionals, lay health advisors, or volunteers in a variety of settings.
Reducing Structural Barriers Interventions that facilitate removal of non-economic barriers to accessing screening, for example by: reducing time or distance between screening location and target group; modifying hours of service; offering services in alternative settings (mammography vans); and eliminating/simplifying administrative process or other obstacles (e.g., scheduling, transportation, translation services). Could be combined with one or more secondary interventions: print/telephone reminders, cancer screening education, screening availability information.
Reducing Out-of-Pocket Costs to Clients Removal or decreasing of economic barriers restricting access to screening (e.g., subsidizing screening through use of vouchers, reducing co-payments or other up-front client-borne expenses, reimbursing clients or clinics after services have been rendered, or adjusting the cost of federal or state insurance coverage. Could be combined with secondary supporting measures: cancer screening education, availability information, structural barrier reduction (e.g., assisting with language and cultural barriers; streamlining appointment scheduling).
Provider Assessment and Feedback Involved evaluation of provider performance in delivering or offering screening to clients (assessment) and presenting providers with information about their performance in providing screening services (feedback).
Could involve either group or individual practices, with possible comparison to goal or standard.
Provider Incentives Direct or indirect rewards (monetary or non-monetary) that motivate providers to perform or make appropriate referral for cancer screening services. Assessment component, with or without feedback, might be included in intervention.