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Table 1 Summary of findings for studies reporting research utilization in general (n = 39 articles)

From: Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

Individual Determinant First Author Significance* Direction and Magnitude Comment
1. BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES
Perceived support for research Butler [71] NS   
Attitude toward research Champion [50] S + (r = .55)  
  Estabrooks [31] S + LISREL Chi square = 55.91 p = .263 for model with attitude, belief suspension and in-services
  Hatcher [52] S + (r = .65 - .82)  
  Lacey [54] S + (r = .674)  
  Prin [56] S + (r = .58)  
  Tranmer [57] S + (β = .64)  
  Varcoe [61] S + (r = .41) S for general research use (RUQ); NS for specific practices
  Wells [72] S + (β = 1.62)  
Expectation of self to use research Varcoe [61] S + (r = .51) With general use of research (not specific findings)
Expressed interest in research Varcoe [61] S + (r = .50) With general use of research (not specific findings)
Problem solving ability Estabrooks [31] NS   
Cosmopoliteness Estabrooks [31] NS   
  Estabrooks [31] NS   
Autonomy Forbes [62] S + (r = 0.08)  
  McCloskey [33] S + ( β = 0.135)  
Dogmatism Estabrooks [31] NS   
Activism Estabrooks [31] NS   
Belief suspension Estabrooks [31] S + (LISREL) Chi square = 55.91 p = .263 for model with attitude, in-services, belief suspension
Theoretical orientation Estabrooks [31] NS   
Trust Estabrooks [31] NS   
Confidence Wells [72] NS   Confidence in research related activities (e.g., reading research, discussing research)
Career commitment Stiefel [60] S + (R2 = 0.13) MANOVA
Perception of nurse as a RU barrier Bostrom [51] S + (t = 2.512) Research user reports less individual barriers
Awareness (overall) of practice Squires [14] S + (β = 2.52) For 'user of research'
Awareness of practice by regular use Squires [14] S + (β = 3.49) For 'user of research'
Research awareness Wells [72] NS   
Persuaded (believe in) of the practice Squires [14] S + (β = 2.11) For 'user of research'
2. INVOLVEMENT IN RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
Current data collection for others Butler [71] S + (OR = 4.04)  
Participation in research-related activities Berggren [46] NS   
  McCleary [29] S + Test statistic not given
Participation in research as subject Hatcher [52] NS   
Past use of research Butler [71] S + OR = 20.0  
Job related research activities Rutledge [49] S + (r = .0673 to .1272) S for 3 of 8 practices
Participation in research study Brett [44] NS   
  Nash [55] NS   
Education for research participation Logsdon [77] S + (r = .32)  
Research participation Tsai [74] S + (r = .3268)  
Involvement in research projects Tranmer [57] NS   
Research experience Varcoe [61] S + (r = .37) With general use of research (not specific findings)
Participation in quality management McCleary [29] S + Test statistic not given
Participation in quality improvement Wallin [58] S + (X 2 = 11.1)  
Completion of the research study Tsai [75] NS   
3. INFORMATION SEEKING
Nursing texts as information Barta [45] NS   
Nursing journals as information \ Barta [45] S + (t = -2.36)  
Education by specialty groups Barta [45] NS   
Personal experience as information Squires [14] S + (β = 0.55) For 'consistent research user'
P&P manual as information Squires [14] NS   
In-services as a source of knowledge Squires [14] NS   
Attended education program Berggren [46] NS   
Critical reading skills Tranmer [57] S + (β = 0.19) Pre-test & Post-test respondents combined
Use computer Wallin [69] S + (β = 0.142)  
Time per week on the internet Wallin [69] NS   
Internet use Cummings [68] NS   
Have a personal computer Wallin [69] NS   
Reading activities Read journals     
  Berggren [46] NS   
   Hours reading journals Brett [44] S + (r = .163)  
  Coyle [47] NS   
  Michel [48] NS   
   Number of journals read Rodgers [12] S + (Z = 2.98)  
  Rutledge [49] S + (r = .0901) 1 of 8 practices
  Wells [72] NS   
   Reads Heart & Lung Coyle [47] S + (X 2 = 3.795)  
  Michel [48] S + Mann Whitney U = 1422.0  
   Reads Nursing Research Brett [44] S + (X 2 = 12.422)  
  Michel [48] NS   
   Reads RN Brett [44] S + (X 2 = 8.925)  
Attendance at conferences/in-services Butler [71] NS   
  Coyle [47] S + (X 2 = 5.179) To total TIAB score
  Estabrooks [31] S + (LISREL) Chi square = 55.91 p = .263 for model with attitude, belief suspension and in-services
  Michel [48] S + Mann Whitney U = 1291.5  
  Rutledge [49] S + (r = .1168) All 8 practices combined
Hours of continuing education Brett [44] NS   
  Coyle [47] NS   
Number of study days attended Rodgers [12] S + (r = .095)  
Time spent studying (on duty) Rodgers [12] NS   
Time spent studying (off duty) Rodgers [12] S + (r = .1)  
MEDLINE usage Prin [56] S + (r = .2526)  
4. EDUCATION
Increasing levels (multiple levels: diploma, bachelors, masters, PhD; post-hoc analysis not provided) Brett [44] NS   Diploma, Bachelors, Masters
  Coyle [47] NS   
  Lacey [54] S + (r = .554)  
  Logsdon [77] S + (X 2 = 7.99) Willingness to use research to change practice
  Nash [55] NS   
  Rodgers [12] S + (rho = .12)  
  Rutledge [49] S - All Practices r = -.1205, 3 of 8 practices (.0666-.1158) Diploma/associate, bachelors, masters, doctorate Suggested in article to be spurious due to multiple tests
Type of degree Berggren [46] NS   Diploma, Degree
  Brown [70] S + (X 2 = 36.1) Without bachelor's vs. with bachelors vs. graduate degree.
  Bonner [59] S + (H = 11.16) Kruskal wallis Masters degree versus lower
  Butler [71] S + (OR = 1.75) Diploma, Bachelors degree (higher for degree)
  Champion [50] NS   Graduate compared to basic education (BN)
  Erler [46] NS   For using lit searches in practice and in policies, Diploma versus degree
  Estabrooks [31] NS   Diploma, Degree
  Forbes [62] NS   Diploma, Degree
  McCleary [29] S + (F = 8.8) Bachelors vs. community college & graduate vs. community college
  McCloskey [33.34] S + (F = 11.34) Diploma, Bachelors, Masters
  Michel [48] S + (U = 2345.0) BSN, MSN
  Ofi [73] NS   Diploma, Degree
  Squires [14] NS   Diploma, Degree
  Stiefel [60] NS   Bachelors, Graduate degree
  Tranmer [57] NS   Diploma, Degree
  Varcoe [61] NS   Diploma, Degree
  Wallin [69] S + (r = 0.229) Diploma, Degree
Working toward a degree Brett [44] NS   
  Coyle [47] NS   
Current enrolment Brett [44] NS   
Well prepared in education process Logsdon [77] S + (r = .32) With willingness to change ones practice based on research
Number of degrees Brett [44] NS   
Courses attended Estabrooks [31] NS   
Completion of research class(es) Brett [44] NS   
  Coyle [47] NS   
  McCleary [30] S + (t = 2.9)  
  Nash [55] NS   
  Rodgers [12] S + (Mann Whitney U = 4.44)  
Completion of statistics course Butler [71] NS   
Completion of research design course McCleary [29] S + (t = 3.9)  
  McCleary [30] S + (t = 3.5)  
Number of statistics courses taken Wells [72] S + (β = 0.48)  
Years since basic education Brett [44] NS   
Years since last degree Estabrooks [31] NS   
Taught a topic based on research Rodgers [12] S + (Mann Whitney U = 4.93)  
Having project 2000 training Parahoo [35] NS   
5. PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
Full or part-time status Butler [71] NS   
  Wallin [69] S + (β = 0.228) For work full time
Years employed as an RN Butler [71] NS   
  Champion [50] NS   
  Coyle [47] NS   
  Estabrooks [31] NS   
  McCleary [29] NS   
  McCloskey [34] NS   
  Michel [48] NS   
  Rodgers [12] NS   
  Squires [14] S + (β = 0.07) For 'consistent research user'
  Stiefel [60] S + (r = .22)  
  Tranmer [57] NS   
  Wallin [69] NS   
Years in post (hospital) Tranmer [57] NS   
Current role Berggren [46] NS   Staff midwife or midwifery sister
  Bonner [59] S + Kruskal Wallis (H = 12.67) Nurse unit managers and consultant report more use than staff nurses
  Butler [71] S + (OR = 5.01) Those in leadership or advanced roles report more use than staff nurses
  Connor [66] NS   
  Hatcher [52] S + (t = 5.57) Those in leadership of advanced roles report more use as compared to staff nurses
  McCloskey [33, 34] S + (F = 7.901) Management position or advanced practice nurses vs. staff nurses
  Rodgers [12] NS   Charge nurse vs. staff nurse
  Wallin [69] S - (β = -0.395) Staff nurse versus other (staff nurses use less research)
  Wells [72] NS   Staff nurse, nurse manager
Clinical specialty Estabrooks [31] NS   
  Michel [48] NS   
  Forbes [62] S + ANOVA (F = 5.370 Higher RU for critical care nurses as compared to medical/surgical or obstetrical/gynecological
  Humphris [53] S + X 2 (test value not reported) Greater number of diabetic nurse specialists implement specific findings into practice as compared to the non-nurse specialist group
  Nash [55] S + ANOVA (F = 2.35) Area worked (highest RU mean to lowest): Education, other, hospital inpatient, outpatient clinic, office
  Parahoo [36] S + (X 2 = 3.79) Medical vs. surgical nurses
  Squires [14] S - (β = -0.42) Med-surg compared to critical care unit (med-surg use less than CC)
  Stiefel [60] S + (Wilk's lambda = 0.76, F = 2.23) Critical care higher RU than medicine, surgery, oncology
  Wright [78] NS   Analyzed groups by practice area (general hospital, psychiatric hospital, or community mental health)
Number of memberships held Coyle [47] NS   
Oncology nursing society status Rutledge [49] S - 2 of 8 practices (-.068, -.080)  
Oncology certification Rutledge [49] NS   
CFRN certification Erler [76] S + (X 2 = 9.6 - use research literature); (x 2 = 11.2 - translate findings into policies and procedures)  
Job satisfaction Coyle [47] S + (r = .18)  
  Estabrooks [31] NS   
  Berggren [46] NS   
  Forbes [62] S + (r = 0.13)  
  Wallin [69] S + (β = 0.264)  
Emotional exhaustion Cummings [68] S - (magnitude varied by context) Coefficients significant but model not. High context estimated effect = -.109; partially high context estimated effect = -.191; partially low context estimated effect = -.334; low context estimated effect = -.251
Stress Forbes [62] S - (r = -0.13) Personal job stress: Juggling expectations of other professionals and of clients
  Forbes [62] S - (r = -0.08) Situational job stress: Issues such as equipment, time, and staffing
Affiliation Estabrooks [31] NS   
Dependant care hours Estabrooks [31] NS   
Hours/week worked Estabrooks [31] NS   
  Wallin [69] NS   
Shift usually worked Estabrooks [31] NS   
Shift satisfaction Estabrooks [31] NS   
National certification Stiefel [60] NS   
6. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS
Age Berggren [46] NS   
  Butler [71] NS   
  Champion [50] NS   
  Cummings [68] NS   
  Estabrooks [31] NS   
  Lacey [54] NS   
  McCleary [29] NS   
  Rodgers [12] NS   
  Wallin [69] NS   
Married or partnered/Marital status Estabrooks [31] NS   
Family income Estabrooks [31] NS   
Health/lifestyle activity Estabrooks [31] NS   
Gender Estabrooks [31] NS   
  Stiefel [60] NS   
  Wallin [69] NS   
  1. *Significance: NS = not significant, S = significant at p < 0.05