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Table 5 Studies of preventable readmissions for other conditions among adults, United States, 2000-2009

From: Determinants of preventable readmissions in the United States: a systematic review

Citation Reported readmission type (and explanation if provided) Index condition* Readmit condition Timeframe Population and Setting Design and Sample size Data source(s) Risk factors/associated factors Conceptually linked admissions Strategy for patient linkage Used multivariate statistics§
El Solh et al [51] Late unplanned Pneumonia Pneumonia 30 days to 1 year Patients ≥65 years from 3 university affiliated hospitals Case control
(408)
Multiple hospital databases Patient
Increasing ADL score (more dependent)
Smoking
Swallowing dysfunction
Pneumovax (less likely)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (less likely)
Tranquilizer
Yes No Yes
Jiang et al [31] Potentially preventable (complication
more likely preventable with effective postdischarge care)
10 diagnosis of diabetes or 20 diabetes diagnosis among high risk conditions Diabetes - related 30 and 180 days Diabetics
≥18 years in Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from CA, MO, NY, TN, VA
Retrospective cohort
(130,751)
Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Patient
Hispanic (30 and 180 days)
Black (180 days)
Yes Yes Yes
Marwitz et al [49] Unplanned, non-elective Traumatic brain injury Any non-elective or unplanned reason 1 and 5 years NIDRR Traumatic Brain Injury Program from 17 medical centers nationwide Prospective cohort
(895)
NIDRR Model Systems for Traumatic
Brain Injury database
Environment
Private residence less likely
Yes Yes No
Robbins and Webb [41] Unplanned, undesirable
readmissions
Diabetes Any non-elective 30 days Diabetics ages 25 - 84 from Philadelphia Retrospective cohort
(291,752)
Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment
Council database
Patient
Male
Increasing age less likely
African American
Hispanic less likely
Asian
Other/unknown race-ethnicity
Increasing severity class
Increasing number of prior hospitalizations
Encounter
Medicaid less likely than Medicare
Private insurance less likely than Medicare
Uninsured/self-pay less likely than Medicare
Increasing length of stay
Discharged to other institution
Discharged to home health
Discharged against medical advice
No Yes Yes
Weaver et al [52] Unplanned Cancer Any unplanned 7 days Cancer patients from cancer center in PA Case control
(78)
Chart review Patient
Gastrointestinal cancer
Financial or insurance problems
Living alone
Environment
Caregiver difficulty
No No No
  1. * All exclusion criteria or specific diagnostic codes not reported - see original article for additional details.
  2. Explicitly specified a biological, theoretical or conceptual model linking the readmission condition to the index condition (includes readmissions for same condition)
  3. Specified a strategy or research design to guard against loss to follow up
  4. § Used multivariate statistics
  5. NIDRR = National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research