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Table 4 Studies of preventable readmissions related to surgical procedures among adults, United States, 2000-2009

From: Determinants of preventable readmissions in the United States: a systematic review

Citation Reported readmission type (and explanation if provided) Index condition* Readmit condition Timeframe Population and Setting Design and Sample size Data source(s) Risk factors/associated factors Conceptually linked admissions Strategy for patient linkage Used multivariate statistics§
Azimuddin et al [24] Unplanned Abdominal or perineal colon resection surgery Related to the primary surgical procedure 90 days Colorectal surgery patients from single PA hospital Retrospective cohort
Chart review No statistically significant factors found Yes No No
Kiran et al [33] Unexpected early Intestinal operations Any condition (excluding planned) 30 days Colorectal surgery service patients
single OH hospital
Retrospective cohort
Chart review, Interviews Encounter
Increasing length of stay
No Yes No
Medress and Fleshner [36] Unplanned related
(a direct consequence of the recent operation)
Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery Admission resulted from a complication 30 days Inflammatory bowel disease patients requiring colectomy from single CA hospital Retrospective cohort
Hospital databases, Interviews No statistically significant factors found Yes Yes No
O'Brien [37] Early Elective laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery Any condition 30 days Colorectal surgery patients from single OH hospital Retrospective cohort
Hospital databases Patient
Pulmonary disease
Inflammatory bowel disease
Perioperative steroids
Conversion from laparoscopic to open operation
No Yes No
Ozturk et al [38] Early Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery Any emergent or elective, unplanned readmission 30 days Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery patients from single OH hospital Retrospective cohort
Hospital database, Interviews Patient
Laparoscopic approach
Synchronous protocolectomy
Postoperative blood transfusion
No Yes Yes
Reddy et al [40] Early Pancreatic resection Any condition 30 days and 1 year Pancreatic cancer patients, ≥66 years in SEER and Medicare Parts A and B nationwide Retrospective cohort
SEER-Medicare Linked Data Patient
Increasing Charlson score (1 year)
Increasing length of stay (30 day and 1 year)
Distal pancreatectomy (30 day)
No Yes Yes
Scott et al [42] Readmissions due to early infection Surgery Infection 14 to 28 days Received prophylactic antibiotic prior to surgery from single NY hospital Retrospective cohort
Hospital databases Encounter
Skin or tissue biopsy
Dialysis shunt
Non-cardiac vascular repair
Early infection
Yes No Yes
Weller et al [43] Short-term Any surgical procedure Venous thrombo-embolism (AHRQ PSI) 30 days Surgical patients from NY Retrospective cohort
New York Statewide Planning and Research
Cooperative System
White non-Hispanic**
Increasing age**
Yes Yes No
  1. * All exclusion criteria or specific diagnostic codes not reported - see original article for additional details.
  2. ** Study did not compare readmissions with non-readmissions so factors are from descriptive statistics/reports only
  3. Explicitly specified a biological, theoretical or conceptual model linking the readmission condition to the index condition (includes readmissions for same condition)
  4. Specified a strategy or research design to guard against loss to follow up
  5. § Used multivariate statistics
  6. AHRQ = Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
  7. SEER = Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results
  8. PSI = Patient safety indicators