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Table 2 Studies of preventable readmissions with any cause index admission followed by any cause readmission among adults, United States, 2000-2009

From: Determinants of preventable readmissions in the United States: a systematic review

Citation Reported readmission type (and explanation if provided) Index
condition*
Readmit condition Timeframe Population and Setting Design and Sample size Data source(s) Risk factors/associated factors Conceptually linked admissions Strategy for patient linkage Used multivariate statistics§
Anderson, Clarke et al [53] Unplanned Any condition Any condition 31 days Home health patients ≥65 years at home health agency in IL Case series and qualitative
(76)
Chart review, Interviews Patient
Elderly**
Female**
Development of new condition**
Worsening of discharge condition**
Respiratory conditions**
Cardiac conditions**
Gastrointestinal**
Neurologic symptoms**
No Yes No
Anderson, Tyler et al [54] Unplanned Any condition Any condition Up to 39 days Transitional care unit patients after ≥3 day acute care stay at transitional care unit in IL Case series
(68)
Chart review Patient
Circulatory disorders**
Respiratory disorders**
Worsening of conditions**
Multiple diagnoses**
No Yes No
Arbaje et al [22] Early Any condition Any nonelective readmission 60 days Medicare patients nationwide Retrospective cohort
(1,351)
Medicare Beneficiary Survey, Medicare claim files Patient
Living alone
Lack self-management skills
Unmet functional need
No high school diploma
Encounter
Increasing length of stay
Yes Yes Yes
Friedman et al [2] Potentially preventable (preventable in most cases by ambulatory care of standard quality in the several weeks or months prior to admission) AHRQ's prevention quality indicators AHRQ's prevention quality indicators 6 months All patients in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project from NY, TN, PA, WI Retrospective cohort
(345,651)
Hospital discharge data, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Patient
African American
Hispanic
Encounter
Medicaid
Self-payer
Yes Yes No
Goldfield et al [26] Potentially preventable (which types of admissions were at risk of generating a readmission) Any condition Clinically related to index admission 7, 15 and 30 days All inpatient encounters in FL Retrospective cohort
(242,991)
Hospital discharge data Patient
Age greater than 75 years old
Organizational
Hospital
Yes Yes Yes
Hasan et al [30] Early Any condition Any condition 30 days ≥18 years and admitted by hospitalist or internist in six academic medical centers Retrospective cohort
(10,946)
Interviews from multicenter trial, Hospital databases Patient
Married
Has regular physician
Increasing Charlson index
Increasing admission in last year
Encounter
Medicaid
Medicare
Self-pay
Length of stay >2 days
No Yes Yes
Novotny and Anderson [44] Early Any condition Any condition 41 days English speaking patients ≥18 years from single IL medical center Prospective cohort
(1,077)
Interviews, Hospital databases Patient
Diabetes
Increasing number of doctor visits in past year
Increasing number of hospitalizations in past year
Poor self-rated health status
Increasing Charlson score
Unemployed
Depression
Heart failure
Marital status
Encounter
Increasing length of stay
Medicare/Medicaid
Discharge to home healthcare
Discharge to healthcare facility
Yes Yes No
Parker et al [39] Unplanned Any non-maternal, substance abuse or against medical advice discharge Emergent or urgent admissions 30 days Kaiser Permanente pharmaceutical patients from multiple CA hospitals Retrospective cohort
(6,721)
Existing study database Patient
COPD
Diabetes
Diabetes with complications
Paraplegia
Metastatic solid tumor
No No Yes
Schwarz [45] Early Multiple chronic illnesses Any condition 3 to 4 months Patients ≥65 years and functionally impaired in 2 ADL from two hospitals Prospective cohort
(60)
Chart review, Interviews Environment
Social support negatively associated with readmission
Yes Yes Yes
Timms et al [55] Early Any condition Any condition 30 days Patients ≥65 years from single SC hospital Case series
(127)
Chart review Patient
Female**
Heart disease**
No No No
Weeks et al [5] Unplanned Any acute, short-stay admission Any unexpected admission 30 days VA enrollees ≥65 years nationwide Retrospective cohort
(3,513,912)
VA/Medicare combined dataset Patient
Increasing age
Male
Increasing comorbidity (Elixhauser score)
Index admission as a readmission (history of readmits)
Encounter
Increasing length of stay
Organizational
Index admission to VA hospital
Environment
Rural
No Yes Yes||
  1. * All exclusion criteria or specific diagnostic codes not reported - see original article for additional details.
  2. ** Study did not compare readmissions with non-readmissions so factors are from descriptive statistics/reports only
  3. Explicitly specified a biological, theoretical or conceptual model linking the readmission condition to the index condition (includes readmissions for same condition)
  4. Specified a strategy or research design to guard against loss to follow up
  5. § Used multivariate statistics
  6. ||Modeling technique did not account of non-independence of observations in analysis
  7. AHRQ = Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
  8. VA = Veterans' Affairs
  9. ADLs = Activities of daily living