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Table 2 Participatory research domains along collaboration scale

From: Collaborative research between clinicians and researchers: a multiple case study of implementation

  COLLABORATION SCALE
Participatory Research Domains Full control by Mentors 1 Cooperation 2 Participation 3 Full control by Clinicians 4
Identification of need Issues predetermined by mentors, who 'sell' program to clinicians Clinicians offer advice and input, mentors make decisions Equal decision making Clinicians control decision making, mentors advise
Definition of actual research activities Issues are predetermined by researchers, who then 'sell' the program to clinicians Clinicians offer advice and input, but researchers make the decisions Equal decision making Clinicians control decision making, mentors advise
Use of resources Heavy influx of outside resources Outside funding is still the most important but 'in-kind' contributions may be included Balanced funding Small amounts of seed money
Evaluation Methods Tests, surveys, and interviews designed and conducted by mentors with use of hypothesis testing, with significance or results statistically determined Tests, surveys, and interviews designed by mentors and conducted by the clinical community with use of hypothesis testing, with significance of results statistically determined Partnership in design and conduct using multiple methods of data collection in a natural context Advice from mentors is sought on design, conducted 100% by the clinicians by using multiple methods in a natural context
Indicators of success Clinicians learn little, and mentors have difficulty sharing power Clinicians take only marginal responsibility and depend heavily on mentors Power is shared, but with great tensions Clinicians learn new skills, and mentors and clinicians both want to work together
Sustainability The project dies at completion of the research Some spin-offs are produced The program continues The program continues, and new programs are initiated
  1. Note: Italicized text indicates the group consensus ratings of collaboration by clinicians and mentors.