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Table 2 Criteria used to classify intervention effectiveness, with examples of outcomes reflecting each level of effectiveness

From: The importance of organizational characteristics for improving outcomes in patients with chronic disease: a systematic review of congestive heart failure

Outcome Score Criteria Example
0 • No statistically differences between control and intervention groups, or between intervention and baseline, on process or outcome measures • No difference in adherence, NYHA class, # visits, or # hospitalizations
0.5 • Trends without significance
• Mixed outcomes (significant improvement in minority of measures)
• Significant improvement compared with baseline, but not with control
• Significant improvement in adherence, trends for CHF-related admission and total number of hospital days
1 • Statistically significant improvement:
-all outcomes if ≤3 endpoints
-majority of outcomes if > 3 endpoints
• Significant reduction in all-cause mortality and all-cause admissions at 3 months