Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of Complex Adaptive Systems Abstracted

From: The importance of organizational characteristics for improving outcomes in patients with chronic disease: a systematic review of congestive heart failure

Characteristic Definition Example
Agents who Learn • People can and will process information, as well as react to changes in information • 'Health Buddy' with educational content
• Teach guidelines
Interconnections • Change in pattern of interactions, including non-verbal communication, among agents
• Introducing new agents into the system
• Letters to patients
• Nurse-led heart failure group clinic
• Clinical reminders
Self-organization • Order is created in a system without explicit hierarchical direction • Flexibility in tailoring intervention to individual patients
Co-evolution • The system and the environment influence each other's development • Individualized 'HOME' treatment plan that changes over time