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Table 2 Implemented interventions and their effectiveness.

From: Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

Intervention NWE taxonomy characteristics Outcome measure used Significance of the outcome measures (p ≤ 0.05) Differences relative to control group or pre-intervention
Primary nursing [23, 24] Teamwork Social support [23] + I-C
   Communication [23] - I-C
  Leadership Leadership style [24] NS I-C
  Autonomy Autonomy [24] + I-C
   Job autonomy [23] + I-C
  Workload Complexity [24] NS I-C
   Job demands [23] + I-C
  Clarity Feedback/clarity [24] NS I-C
   Resident assignment [23] + I-C
Shared governance [25] Teamwork Co-worker support [25] NS I-C
   Intrapersonal conflict [25] - I-C
  Autonomy Autonomy [25] NS I-C
  Clarity Role ambiguity [25] NS I-C
   Role conflict [25] NS I-C
Social support training and stress inoculation training [26] Teamwork Peer cohesion [26] + I-C
  Leadership Supervisor support [26] + I-C
Short-term participatory intervention [27] Teamwork Social support [27] + I-C
   Team style [27] NS I-C
  Leadership Management relations and style [27] NS I-C
   Consideration for individuals [27] NS I-C
  Autonomy Decision authority [27] NS I-C
   Autonomy & responsibility [27] NS I-C
  Workload Job demands [27] + I-C
  Clarity Guidelines on how to do the job [27] + I-C
  Professional development opportunities Time to develop [27] NS I-C
   Opportunity to develop [27] + I-C
Nursing practice quality circle [28] Teamwork Peer cohesion [28] NS I-C
  Leadership Supervisor support [28] NS I-C
   Control [28] NS I-C
  Autonomy Autonomy [28] NS I-C
  Workload Work pressure [28] + I-C
  Clarity Clarity [28] NS I-C
  Physical comfort Physical comfort [28] NS I-C
  Innovation Innovation [28] + I-C
Educational toolbox [29] Teamwork Work-climate [29] NS I-C
  Leadership Leadership [29] + I-C
   Performance feedback [29] + I-C
  Autonomy Participation [29] + I-C
  Clarity Goal clarity [29] NS I-C
  Professional development opportunities Skills development [29] + I-C
  Participation in decision making Participation [29] + I-C
Individualized care and regular systematic clinical supervision [30] Teamwork Cooperation [30] + P-P
  Autonomy Autonomy [30] + P-P
  Recognition Recognition [30] + P-P
  Professional development opportunities Professional growth [30] + P-P
Supervisor positive feedback training [31] Teamwork Peer cohesion [31] NS I-C
  Leadership Supervisor support [31] NS I-C
Violence prevention intervention [32, 33] Workplace safety Registration violent events [32] - I-C
   Awareness of risk situations for violence [32] + I-C
   Avoidance of potential dangerous situations [32] + I-C
   Dealing with aggressive patients [32] + I-C
   Perceived knowledge [33] + I-C
   Self-efficacy [33] + I-C
   Violence prevention skills [33] + I-C
  1. + intervention led to significant improvement in the outcome measure
  2. - intervention led to significant deterioration of the outcome measure
  3. NS No significant effect was found
  4. I-C Results of the intervention group are compared with the results of the control group
  5. P-P Results of the intervention group on the post measure are compared with the results of the intervention group on the pre measure.