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Table 3 Quality matrix for a pediatric intensive care unit quality index

From: Improving benchmarking by using an explicit framework for the development of composite indicators: an example using pediatric quality of care

  Safe Effective Efficient Pt-centered Timely Equitable
Structure     Nurse-to-patient ratio Intensivist in house 24 hours a day  
Process Medication Safety Practice, Central line infection prevention practice, VAP prevention practices Review of unplanned readmissions   Pain assessment on admission, Periodic pain assessment Time to receive antibiotics for sepsis  
Outcome VAP rate, BSI rate, UTI rate, Unplanned extubation rate SMR, Unplanned readmission rate Severity adjusted LOS   Failed extubation rate  
  1. Pt: patient; VAP: ventilator associated pneumonia; BSI: blood stream infection; UTI: urinary tract infection; LOS: length of stay; SMR: standardized mortality ratio.
  2. The italicized items are the eight core metrics in Pedi-QS report. The other items were initially rejected either because of lack of evidence or difficulty in measurement.