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Table 3 Summary of case site samples

From: Institutionalizing evidence-based practice: an organizational case study using a model of strategic change

SOURCES OF DATA ROLE MODEL SITE N/TYPE PARTICIPANT BEGINNER SITE N/TYPE PARTICIPANT
FOCUS GROUPS: on three units per case Focus Group interviews = 9 Focus Group interviews = 5
• General med/surg unit; specialty unit; and a critical care unit. Total staff nurse participants, multiple shifts = 27 Total staff nurse participants, multiple shifts = 14
• All staff, per unit, invited to one of several sessions.   
LEADERSHIP INTERVIEWS: Total leadership interviews = 30 Total leadership interviews = 29
• Primarily formal leaders within nursing but also physicians, allied health and non-nursing top leaders. Number of individual leaders = 26 Number of individual leaders = 28
• Informal leaders, primarily nursing • FORMAL: 14 • FORMAL: 14
     - Top organizational leaders, e.g., chief nurse; her 'supervisor'; and chief MD    - Top organizational leaders, e.g., chief nurse; her 'supervisor'; and chief MD
     - Nursing clinical directors and nurse managers; and non-nurse clinical director and non-nurse manager, e.g., allied health    - Nursing clinical directors and nurse managers; and non-nurse clinical director and program leader, e.g., allied health
     - Nursing support or clinical resource services manager and non-nurse support service director    - Nursing support or clinical resource services manager and non-nurse support service director
     - Some also chairs of EBP-related committees/groups    - Some also chairs of EBP-related committees/groups
  • INFORMAL: 12 • INFORMAL: 14
     - Nursing support or clinical resource staff, such as researchers, APNs, or other various specialists relevant to EBP    - Nursing support or clinical resource staff, such as researcher or APN
  • Special staff nurse roles relevant to EBP on non-embedded units such as champion/facilitators or data/outcome specialists; some were also charge nurses    - Other various specialists relevant to EBP either within or outside of nursing, such as condition-specific educator or data/outcome specialists
   • Staff nurses involved in a special project or governance-related group; and an expert nurse
GROUP OBSERVATIONS Groups = 5; Total participants = 74 Groups = 3; Total participants = 16
  • Policy/procedure-related and inter-disciplinary • Policy/procedure and inter-disciplinary
  • Interdisciplinary clinical group • Special QI group
  • Two special EBP groups, one interdisciplinary • Nursing leadership group
  • Shared governance (PI invited)  
EBP-RELATED DOCUMENTS • A multiplicity related to infrastructures, including, e.g., • Some related to infrastructures, including, e.g.,
     - Philosophy and mission    - Philosophy
     - More than a dozen on role descriptions and appraisal; clear focus in career ladder program    - A few nursing role descriptions; roles in QI department; included in career ladder program
     - Materials and minutes from multiple committees and interest groups heavily focused or specifically focused on EBP, some present for over five years    - A research group with materials, minutes and reference to EBP; QI groups, some clearly evidence-focused
     - Descriptions of governance groups, with EBP included in the expectations or activities of the majority    - Descriptions of governance groups, with EBP or data included in the expectations or activities of most
     - Educational and orientation materials, including EBP-related tools, presentations, skill sets    - Journal club material, PowerPoint presentation, and orientation description (e.g., re: library services)
     - Policy/procedure algorithm, researcher audit of related EBP status, and multiple Ps seen linked to evidence; clinical forms for documentation said to be E-B    - Policy/procedure algorithm, and Ps seen being linked to evidence; clinical documentation forms said to be E-B
  • Dozens related to EBP project activity and related dissemination efforts, internal and external: • List of nursing research activity, including students and outside researchers; a PP hospital-based multidisciplinary project; a few single page PI outline for a improvement activities
     - Proposals for the human subjects committee decision  
     - PowerPoint (PP) presentations on EBP process and projects  
     - EBP-related project reports, program evaluations, and an EBP newsletter  
     - Publications, including multi-disciplinary ones; and evidence of co-operative networking  
SURVEY* FOR STAFF NURSES ON THREE EMBEDDED UNITS, with a focus on their unit or self Respondents = 39 Respondents = 21
  Response rate = 34% Response rate = 20%
SURVEY* FOR ALL IDENTIFIED MEMBERS OF THE LEADERSHIP TEAM, with a focus on the department Respondents = 104 Respondents = 65
  Response rate = 56% Response rate = 50%
  1. *Tools in surveys: Organizational Learning, Multi-factor Leadership; Practice Environment; and Research Utilization.