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Table 4 Multi-level model: predicted relations between conditions and outcomes (correlations), associations between applied changes and the conditions and outcomes (fixed effects) and variance components at three levels (random effects)

From: Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes

  Organisational support Team organisation External support Perceived success Performance indicator
Correlations      
Organisational support -     
Team organisation 0.37c -    
External support 0.25b 0.21a -   
Perceived support 0.30b 0.29b 0.08 -  
Performance indicator -0.19 0.14 -0.05 -0.08 -
Fixed effects Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
(Intercept) -0.45 (0.16)b -0.11 (0.18) -0.69 (0.17)c 5.57 (0.31)c 2.03 (0.21)c
Applied changes 0.12 (0.04)c 0.04 (0.04) 0.19 (0.04)c 0.31 (0.07)c 0.09 (0.05)a
Random effects      
Intercept variance at: Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE) Estimate (SE)
- level one (team) 0.69 (0.08)c 0.86 (0.11)c 0.75 (0.08)c 2.01 (0.29)c 0.62 (0.11)c
- level two (QIC) 0.00 (0.00) 0.07 (0.06) 0.03 (0.04) 0.42 (0.23)b 0.15 (0.09)b
- level three (hospital) 0.15 (0.07)a 0.06 (0.05) 0.08 (0.06) 0.04 (0.12) 0.00 (0.05)
Percentage of variance at:      
- level one (team) 82% 87% 87% 81% 81%
- level two (QIC) 0% 7% 3% 17% 19%
- level three (hospital) 18% 6% 9% 2% 0%
  1. a p < 0.05; b p < 0.01; c p < 0.001
  2. Note: teams are nested in QICs and hospitals (Figure 2)