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Table 1 Summary of research design by content domain

From: Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol

  Electronic communication of abnormal diagnostic test results Electronic referral requests Provider-to-pharmacy communication via CPOE
Task Analysis
Sample Primary care providers (50% timely and 50% untimely follow-up) Specialists from five clinics Primary care providers (50% high and 50% low prescription error)
Procedure Task-based interviews on current knowledge and use of CPRS alert management features Cognitive walkthrough of consult process at each specialty Think aloud exercise of commonly miss-entered prescriptions
Analysis Content analysis of alert management schedules, knowledge of alert management features, and use of workarounds Process map of consult process at each specialty; corroboration against independent primary care task database Content analysis of think aloud transcripts for correctness of prescription entry and specific strategies used
Focus Groups
Sample Primary care, laboratory, and IT personnel Primary care providers, specialists, and IT personnel Primary care providers, IT personnel, and pharmacists
Procedure Three focus groups:
Providers with timely follow-up (fresh data collection),
Providers with untimely follow-up (fresh data collection)
Mix of providers with timely and untimely follow-up (member checking and corroboration)
Four focus groups:
Primary care providers (fresh data collection)
Specialists (fresh data collection)
Primary care providers (member checking and corroboration)
Specialists (member checking and corroboration)
Three focus groups of pharmacists and:
Providers with high prescription conflict errors (fresh data collection),
Providers with low prescription conflict errors(fresh data collection)
Mix of providers (member checking and corroboration)
Analysis Grounded theory analysis of focus group transcripts; inductive coding taxonomy development via single sequence of coding, validation, and consensus; taxonomy fitted to SEIPSa model and used for open, axial, and selective coding Grounded theory analysis of focus group transcripts; inductive coding taxonomy development via iterative process of coding, validation, and consensus; taxonomy fitted to SEIPS model and used for open, axial, and selective coding Grounded theory analysis of focus group transcripts; inductive coding taxonomy development via single sequence of coding, validation, and consensus; taxonomy fitted to SEIPS model and used for open, axial, and selective coding
  1. aSystems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety