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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment Subscales

From: Organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA): Development of an instrument based on the Promoting Action on Research in Health Services (PARIHS) framework

Scale and subscale labels (item numbers) Number of items retained Lipids-reminders (n = 12) ICU QI-intervention (n = 20) Cardiac Care Initiative (n = 48) Overall (n = 80)
   Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Cronbach's Alpha
Evidence Scale 10 3.96 0.24 3.89 0.42 4.03 0.44 3.99 0.41 0.74††
Research (q3a – d) 3 4.19 0.48 4.08 0.57 4.18 0.47 4.16 0.49 0.68
Clinical experience (q4a – c) 3 4.08 0.35 3.98 0.58 4.15 0.54 4.10 0.52 0.77
Patient preferences (q5a – d) 4 3.60 0.43 3.61 0.45 3.77 0.53 3.71 0.49 0.68
Context Scale 23 3.24 0.44 3.54 0.35 3.85 0.66 3.68 0.61 0.85
Leader culture (q6a – c) 3 2.92 0.93 3.50 0.83 3.91 0.98 3.66 1.00 0.92
Staff culture (q7a – d) 4 4.00 0.60 3.78 0.38 4.15 0.77 4.03 0.68 0.90
Leadership behavior (q8a – d) 4 2.92 0.90 3.61 0.47 3.95 0.90 3.71 0.88 0.93
Measurement (feedback) (q9a – d) 4 3.63 0.73 3.51 0.50 4.07 0.78 3.87 0.75 0.88
Opinion leaders (q10a – d) 4 3.73 0.38 3.85 0.49 4.10 0.68 3.98 0.61 0.91
General resources (q11a – d) 4 2.25 0.61 2.96 0.84 2.91 0.80 2.83 0.82 0.86
Facilitation Scale 40 3.14 0.50 3.83 0.33 3.59 0.68 3.58 0.62 0.95
Leaders practices (q12a – d) 4 3.42 0.64 3.59 0.37 3.82 0.74 3.70 0.66 0.87
Clinical champion (q13a – d) 4 3.19 0.67 3.78 0.57 3.74 0.85 3.67 0.78 0.94
Leadership implementation roles (q14a – d) 4 2.94 0.68 3.85 0.50 3.73 0.67 3.64 0.70 0.87
Implementation team roles (q15a – d) 4 2.92 0.71 3.66 0.62 3.42 0.82 3.40 0.78 0.86
Implementation plan (q16a – d) 4 3.17 0.77 4.06 0.44 3.75 0.82 3.74 0.78 0.95
Project communication (q17a – d) 4 3.25 0.65 4.05 0.46 3.66 0.87 3.70 0.79 0.92
Project progress tracking (q18a – d) 4 3.25 0.51 3.94 0.49 3.44 0.70 3.53 0.67 0.82
Project resources and context (q19a – f) 6 2.86 0.63 3.53 0.47 3.27 0.77 3.27 0.71 0.87
Project evaluation (q20a – e) 5 3.30 0.67 4.04 0.40 3.49 0.67 3.60 0.66 0.87
  1. † The three major scales (evidence, context, facilitation) are averages of their constituent subscales, thus subscales are equally weighted. ‡ Cronbach's alpha for a revised context scale after eliminating the general resources subscale was 0.87. †† Cronbach's alpha for a revised evidence scale based on just the research evidence and clinical experience subscales was 0.83. Alpha numeric information in parentheses is item numbers, which are used in the example survey [see Additional file 1].