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Table 2 Summary of included study characteristics and clinical behaviours measured

From: Are there valid proxy measures of clinical behaviour? a systematic review

Study Characteristics Behaviour measured
  1. Type of participants
2. Target population
3. Sampling strategy
Participants approached & analysed Consultations/sessions/indications observed/vignettes completed & analysed 1. Clinical area/s
2. Behaviour/s observed
(No. of clinical actions scored)
No. of checklist
items
Summarised
(weighted)
   N n % N n %    
Stange[5]
1998
1. Family practice physicians
2. Members of the Ohio Academy of FPs, practice within 50 miles radius of Cleveland & Youngstown
3. Convenience sample
138 128 93 4454 4432
(MR)
3283
(PR)
99
(MR)
74
(PR)
1. Delivery of a range of outpatient medical services
2. Counselling (29), physical examination (16), screening (5), Lab tests (10), immunisation (7), Referral (4)
79  
Flocke[6]
2004
1. Family physicians
2. Primary care physicians in North West Ohio
3. All physicians approached
138 128 93 4454 2,670 60 1. Health promotion
2. Smoking (2), alcohol, exercise, diet, substance use, sun exposure, seatbelt use, HIV & STD prevention
10  
Wilson[7]
1994
1. General practitioners (GPs)
2. 10 general practices in Nottinghamshire
3. Selection of GPs not reported. Minimum of two non-random consultations were recorded
16 16 100 3324 516 (MR)
335 (PR)
16 (MR)
10 (PR)
1. Health promotion
2. Asked patient about 4 health behaviours: smoking (1), alcohol (1), diet & exercise (1); measurement of blood pressure (1)
4  
Ward[8]
1996
1. Post-graduate trainees
2. Training general practices in New South Wales
3. Trainees who were having their first experience in supervised general practice
34 34 100 1500 1075 72 1. Smoking cessation
2. Establish smoking status & provide smoking cessation counselling (2)
2  
Zuckerman[9]
1975
1. Paediatricians
2. Physicians working in a university medical centre serving an inner-city population
3. All 3 staff physicians
3 3 100 51 51 100 1. Paediatric consultation
2. Diagnosis and management (8), historical items (7)
15  
Luck[10]
2000
1. Primary care physicians
2. 2 general internal medicine primary care outpatient clinics
3. Random sample of 10 physicians at each site
20 20 100 160 160 100 1. Management of LBP, DM, COPD, CAD.
2. History, Physical exam, Tests ordered, Diagnosis & Treatment/management (21 for LBP)
NR √ (w)
Page[11]
1980
1. Community pharmacists
2. Participants on a continuing education course in British Columbia, Canada
3. All participants
30 30 100 58 58 100 1. Management of: Cold, Pain
2. Recommend either: non-prescription medication (cold = 17, pain = 15) or see physician (cold = 17, pain = 18)
103 √ (w)
Gerbert[12]
1988
1. Primary care physicians
2. Primary care physicians serving 6 counties in California
3. Convenience sample
63 63 100 197 197 100 1. Medication regimens in the management of COPD
2. Prescription of theophyllines (1), sympathomimetics (2), oral corticosteroids (1)
4  
Pbert[13]
1999
1. Primary care physicians 2. Attending physicians & their patients at University medical centre in Massachusetts.
3. Convenience sample
12 12 100 154 108 70 1. Smoking cessation
2. Cessation counselling (15)
15
Gerbert[14]
1986
1. Primary care physicians
2. NR
3. Convenience sample
63 63 100 214 192 90 1. Management of COPD
2. Symptoms (8), signs (2), Tests (3), Treatments (3), Patient education (4)
75
Dresselhaus[15]
2000
1. Primary care physicians
2. 2 general internal medicine primary care outpatient clinics
3. Random sample of 10 physicians at each site
20 20 100 160 160 100 1. Management of low back pain, diabetes mellitus, COPD, CAD.
2. Preventive care: tobacco screening (1), smoking cessation advice (1), prevention measures (1), alcohol screening (1), diet evaluation (1), exercise assessment (1) & exercise advice (1)
7
Rethans[16]
1987
1. GPs
2. GPs working in Maastricht
3. All participants
55 25 46 27 25 93 1. Management of Urinary Tract Infection
2. History taking (8); Physical Examination (3); Instructions to patients (7); Treatment (2); Follow-up (4)
24
Rethans[17]
1994
1. GPs
2. Sampling strategy reported elsewhere.
3. Sampling strategy reported elsewhere
39 35 90 140 101 72 1. Management of tension headache; acute diarrhoea; pain in the shoulder; check-up for non-insulin dependent diabetes.
2. History, Physical exam, Lab exam, Advice, Medication & follow-up (range over 4 conditions: 25–36)
25–36
Peabody[18]
2000
1. Primary care physicians
2. 2 general internal medicine primary care outpatient clinics
3. Random sample of 10 physicians at each site
20 20 100 160 160 100 1. Management of low back pain (LBP), diabetes mellitus (DM), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) oronary artery disease (CAD).
2. History taking (7), Physical examination (3), lab tests (5), Diagnosis(2), Management (6) (Averaged 21 actions per case)
168 √ (w)
O'Boyle[19]
2001
1. Nurses
2. ICU staff in 4 metropolitan teaching hospitals in "Mid-West" USA
3. ICUs with comparable patient populations
124 120 97 120 120 100 1. Adherence to hand hygiene recommendations 2. Hand washing (for a maximum of 10 indications) 1