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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the MHealthy: focus on diabetes sample

From: A controlled trial of value-based insurance design – The MHealthy: Focus on Diabetes (FOD) trial

Characteristics Reduced Co-payments (Intervention) Standard Co-payments (Control)
Number of respondents enrolled 2,507 8,637
Mean age in years (SD) 45.1 (13.06) 47.5 (12.83)*
Female 57.7% 53.1%*
Basis for insurance coverage   
   Employee 62.3% 66.3%*
   Spouse 31.1% 29.1%
   Child 4.7% 4.0%
   Other 1.9% 0.6%
Median Household Income $55,086 $54,758
Charlson Comorbidity Score (SD) 1.43 (0.65) 1.46 (0.69)
Baseline Medication Utilization   
   Metformin 53.9% 53.6%
   ACE/ARBs 43.4% 48.7%*
   Statins 44.7% 44.5%
   SSRIs 21.7% 18.9%*
  1. *Significant at P < 0.05
  2. Based-upon zip-code level median household income data
  3. Estimates based on the Deyo modification to the Charlson Index [40].