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Table 1 A fourteen-year federally-funded program of research to understand primary care practice change

From: The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

Project Name
(Acronym)
Project funding
Source and Dates
Project Description
Direct Observation of Primary Care (DOPC) NCI
R01 CA60862
(PI, Stange)
1994–1997
Cross-sectional descriptive study of 4454 patient visits to 138 physicians from 84 practices in Ohio using surveys, chart audits and direct observation of visits
Prevention and Competing Demands in Primary Care (P & CD) AHRQ
R01 HS08776
(PI, Crabtree)
1996–1999
Ethnographic comparative case studies of 18 practices in Nebraska using participant observation and depth and key informant interviews
Study To Enhance Prevention by Understanding Practice (STEP-UP) NCI
2R01 CA60862
(PI, Stange)
1999–2000
Group randomized intervention trial of 80 Ohio practices using a facilitator to help practices select and tailor strategies from a cancer prevention toolkit.
Insights from Multimethod Practice Assessment of Change over Time (IMPACT) NCI
3R01 CA60862
(PI, Stange)
2001–2004
Secondary data of STEP-UP to understand why some practices made substantial changes and others none, and to create a theoretical change model.
Using Learning Teams for Reflective Adaptation (ULTRA) NHLBI
R01 HL70800
(PI, Crabtree)
2002–2008
Group randomized intervention trial of 60 NJ and PA practices using the IMPACT model and a facilitated a "Reflective Adaptive Process" (RAP) to enhance relationships and cardiovascular disease care.