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Table 7 Methods used in producing a product or delivering a service

From: Evidence-informed health policy 2 – Survey of organizations that support the use of research evidence

Characteristics Organizations producing CPGs
(n = 31)
Organizations producing HTAs
(n = 19)
Organizations producing CPGs and HTAs
(n = 45)
Organizations supporting government policymaking (n = 57)
Types of information provided to the panel or employed*
Systematic reviews 31 (100%) 16 (84%) 42 (93%) 49 (86%)
Economic evaluations 15 (48%) 15 (79%) 24 (53%) 34 (60%)
Decision analyses 13 (42%) 9 (47%) 23 (51%) 29 (51%)
Existing burden of disease/illness 26 (84%) 17 (89%) 34 (76%) 38 (67%)
Existing practice patterns 21 (68%) 14 (74%) 33 (73%) 33 (58%)
Existing guidelines (or HTAs) 30 (97%) 15 (79%) 41 (91%) 38 (67%)
Resource constraints 11 (35%) 10 (53%) 18 (40%) 26 (46%)
Commissioned research - - - 27 (47%)
Other 7 (23%) 5 (26%) 9 (20%) 10 (18%)
Explicit valuation process used*
Evidence is prioritized by its quality 30 (97%) 17 (89%) 41 (91%) 40 (70%)
Outcomes are prioritized by their importance to those affected 19 (61%) 10 (53%) 28 (52%) 39 (68%)
Groups are prioritized by their importance to achieving equity objectives 8 (26%) 0 (0%) 11 (24%) 27 (47%)
Methods used to formulate recommendations*
Subjective review 5 (16%) 5 (26%) 12 (27%) 26 (46%)
Informal consensus 10 (32%) 9 (47%) 11 (24%) 28 (49%)
Formal consensus (e.g., nominal group or Delphi techniques) 18 (58%) 3 (16%) 19 (42%) 29 (51%)
Graded according to the quality of the evidence and/or the strength of the recommendation (using an explicit rating scheme) 26 (84%) 12 (63%) 34 (76%) 31 (54%)
Explicit assessments used in formulating recommendations*
Quality of evidence 29 (94%) 16 (84%) 43 (96%) 41 (72%)
Trade-offs between benefits and harms 20 (65%) 9 (47%) 35 (78%) 35 (61%)
Costs 14 (45%) 12 (63%) 30 (67%) 31 (54%)
Equity 9 (29%) 6 (32%) 21 (47%) 27 (47%)
Review processes used*
Clinical or policy validation (e.g., pilot testing, trial implementation period) 9 (29%) 3 (16%) 11 (24%) 24 (42%)
Comparison with products or input from other groups 15 (48%) 5 (26%) 27 (60%) 19 (33%)
Internal review 26 (84%) 17 (89%) 38 (84%) 41 (72%)
External review by experts 24 (77%) 16 (84%) 42 (93%) 43 (75%)
External review by target users 18 (58%) 5 (26%) 21 (47%) 23 (40%)
  1. *More than one answer was possible for the question