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Table 1 Summary of development and refinement steps of PARiHS framework

From: Evaluating the successful implementation of evidence into practice using the PARiHS framework: theoretical and practical challenges

Phase 1: Development and Concept Analysis 1998 – 2002
Origins - Emerged from working with clinicians in helping them to improve practice, introduce new ideas and implement guidelines.
Main Attributes - Successful implementation of new ideas (evidence, guidelines, etc.) is a function of the interrelations between three key elements – evidence, context, facilitation: SI = f (E, C, F)
Face Validity - 4 research studies were analysed retrospectively to test the hypothesis that SI = f (E, C, F).
- Strong face validity.
Construct Validity - Assumption that Evidence, Context and Facilitation as described are discrete and interdependent and can be manipulated in a purposeful way.
Refinement - Need to undertake detailed concept analysis of each of the elements and sub-elements (E, C, F).
Future Action - Concept analysis and empirical testing.
Publications - [4-7]
Phase 2: Empirical Case Studies 2001–2003
Main Research Questions - What factors do practitioners identify as the most important in enabling implementation of evidence into practice?
- Do concepts of evidence, context and facilitation constitute the key elements of a framework for getting research into practice?
Refinement - Important additions to evidence – information from local context; resources, physical and political influences in context.
- Experience of facilitators on the ground with very little, limited support.
Future Action - Further testing through larger scale empirical enquiry testing the checklist and developing an evaluation tool.
Publications - [5, 8]
Phase 3: Development of Diagnostic/Evaluation Tool 2003 – Present
Main Research Questions - Is it possible to develop a diagnostic and evaluative tool to measure the successful implementation of new ideas (evidence, innovation) into practice using the PARiHS framework?
Refinement - Pre-test diagnostic phase
     • Summary scores for evidence and context (E, C)
     • Narrative summary
     • Information on prototypes of facilitation approaches
  - The facilitation process
  - The post test evaluation
     • Re-plot summary scores for E + C
     • Narrative summary
     • Evaluation of facilitation approach