Skip to main content

Table 1 Predicting behaviour by psychological theory: descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyses.

From: Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

Theoretical framework Predictive Constructs N Alpha Mean (SD) r Beta R2(adj) df F
Theory of Planned Behaviour (a) Attitude direct 3 0.54 8.7 (2.8) 0.136*     
  Attitude indirect 7 0.56 148.7 (35.7) 0.012     
  Subjective Norm 3 0.68 50.2 (18.8) -0.103     
  Intention 3 0.68 6.5 (2.5) 0.193** 0.147*    
  PBC direct 4 0.70 17.0 (4.5) -0.113 -0.013***    
  PBC power 7 0.86 24.4 (6.6) 0.171* 0.1** 0.033 3, 215 3.5*
Social Cognitive Theory Risk perception 3 0.61 8.8 (2.8) 0.179** 0.183*    
  Outcome expectancies (self) 2 0.80 36.1 (15.0) -0.052 -0.103    
  Outcome expectancies (behaviour) 7 0.56 18.5 (4.5) -0.03 -0.133*    
  Self-efficacy 6 0.88 35.9 (11.1) 0.175** 0.155    
  Generalised self-efficacy 10 0.85 28.6 (3.6) -0.005 0.045 0.049 5, 208 3.2**
Implementation Intention Action Planning -   2.9 (1.7) 0.169* 0.0169* 0.024 1, 220 6.4
Operant Learning Theory Anticipated consequences 3 0.61 8.8 (2.8) 0.179** 0.087    
  Evidence of habitual behaviour 2 0.70 4.7 (2.1) 0.253*** 0.218** 0.063 2, 216 8.3***
Common Sense Self-regulation Model Identity of condition 2 0.57 7.4 (2.0) -0.013 -0.019    
  Time (acute/chronic) 1   3.6 (1.2) 0.036 -0.056    
  Time (cyclical) 1   3.7 (1.3) 0.088 0.022    
  Control (by treatment) 2 0.27 5.6 (1.9) 0.097 0.181*    
  Control (by patient) 2 0.57 9.5 (2.2) 0.061 0.193*    
  Control (by doctor) 2 0.60 8.1 (2.4) -0.01 -0.016    
  Cause: social contact 1   5.2 (1.0) -0.121 -0.127    
  Cause: viral prevalence 1   5.5 (0.9) -0.011 0.055    
  Cause: stress 1   3.7 (1.4) -0.128 -0.105    
  Cause: air travel 1   4.7 (1.2) -0.095 -0.018    
  Cause: chance/bad luck 1   4.3 (1.5) -0.133* -0.162*    
  Consequence 2 0.34 8.0 (3.0) 0.003 -0.047    
  Coherence 2 0.67 11.1 (1.8) 0.049 0.005    
  Emotional Response 4 0.63 9.6 (3.7) 0.102 0.111 0.028 14, 191 1.4
Other Knowledge 5 0.00 2.9 (0.9) -0.057 -0.057 0.000 1, 222 0.717
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.
  2. (a) Only intention and perceived behavioural control measures are entered into the regression equation as only these constructs are the proximal predictors of behaviour in this model.
  3. Alpha = Cronbach's Alpha; r = Pearson product moment correlation coefficient; Beta = standardised regression coefficients; - = single question measure.