|Author, number of studies||Quality score||Focus||Main results|
N = 16
|7||Enlargement of the role of the public pharmacist||Changed use of healthcare services (PSI 6/6 = 100%). Improved patient outcomes (PSI 10/13 = 77%). No change in: quality of life.|
N = 38
|9||Mental health workers in primary care: replacement of/consultation to primary care providers||*Replacement: lowered consultation rates (PSI 2/8 = 25%), short term reduction on psychotropic prescribing (PSI 4/11= 36%), long term changes psychotropic prescribing (PSI 3/6 = 50%), reduced mental health referrals (PSI 3/6 = 50%). *Consultation: more appropriate short term prescribing (PSI 3/6 = 50%). No change in: consultation rates, referral patterns.|
N = 13
|4||Nurse practitioners in primary care||Improved laboratory testing (AES 0.20), resolution of pathological conditions (AES 0.28), patient satisfaction (AES 0.30). No change in: quality of care, prescribing, functional status, consultation rates, use of emergency service.|
N = 13
|7||Revision of professional roles for guideline implementation in hospitals||Improved professional performance (AOR 9.78, S).|
N = 11
|6||Nurse practitioners in primary care||Improved patient satisfaction (SMD 0.27), longer consultations (WMD 3.67 minutes), more investigations (OR 1.22). No change in: health status.|
N = 6
|8||Specialist nurses in diabetes mellitus||No change in: HbA1c, emergency admissions, quality of life.|
N = 20
|6||Organizational change (mainly involvement of non-physician staff and clinics devoted to prevention) to improve adult immunization and cancer screening||
Improved preventive activities|
(AOR range 2.74 – 17.6).
N = 4
|7||Outreach nursing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease||
Increased hospital service utilization|
(PSI 2/2 = 100%).
No change in: mortality, lung function, health related quality of life.
N = 7
|8||Dietary advice by dietitians compared to self-management materials.||No change in: patient outcomes.|